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700年前的道士“执照”被发现!有图有真相

佚名 文化 2020年11月02日

700年前的道士“执照”被发现!有图有真相

永乐宫壁画/ CFP




位于山西芮城的永乐宫是中国现存最早的道教宫观。据永乐宫壁画保护研究院透露,该院工作人员在整理永乐宫搬迁资料时发现了近百件蒙元时期道教古籍文书。其中有五件道教度戒牒文书和一件刻印道经,经有关专家评估,被定为馆藏一级文物。




这五件道教度戒牒文书分别为:“元行尚书省断事官付道人张来童执照”、“元皇帝圣旨普通度戒牒(含封套)付长春宫李真人”、“元贵由皇帝福荫丘神仙门人通云真人圣旨”、“元陕西都总管付道士张志洞执照”、“元行尚书省断事官给太平兴国观保付执照模板”。




其中,“元行尚书省断事官付道人张来童执照”、“元陕西都总管付道士张志洞执照”、“元贵由皇帝福荫丘神仙门人通云真人圣旨”分别是元代道士张来童、张志洞和于善庆在各地区之间通行的身份证明。




这三张“执照”的签发时间在公元1244至1248年之间,文书内容也大致相似。均先引述朝廷批准宗教人员活动的圣旨,再叙述通行事由和持照人履历,最后由担保人和签发机构画押。




Five Taoist priest's identification papers and a copy of Taoist scriptures discovered in the iconic Taoist temple Yongle Palace in north China's Shanxi Province have disclosed the secrets of monks living more than 700 years ago.




Three of the identification papers, which were used as travel permits and issued from 1244 to 1248, have similar writing style, starting with citing the imperial edict of approving religious activities, then explaining who was the paper's holder and what he would do, and ending with the signature of a bondsman and issuance organization.




张来童来自涿州定兴孙陈家庄众仙观,持照时只有十八岁,执照上写明了他的职务、籍贯、师承,由陕西终南上清太平宫的道士王德光为他的往来通行作保。




张志洞来自陕西终南重阳宫持照时二十九岁,由终南重阳宫的知宫张志祐作保。




于善庆的执照则略为特别。由于他当时已是地位较高的全真道士,他的执照直接由当时的皇帝签发,可在各地通行无碍。




The papers also read the name, age, title and birthplace of the holders and whose their mentors were. They usually had another Taoist priest to be his bondsman. But one of the holders, named Yu Shanqing, was an abbot of a prestigious Taoist temple, and his identification paper was issued directly by the then emperor, which entitled him the all-pass right to travel across the country.




除了这三份执照外,五件文书中还包含了一件“执照模板”——“元行尚书省断事官给太平兴国观保付执照模板”(1244年)。它由山西平遥太平兴国观的道士刘志晏所写,其行文格式皆与其他执照一致,但未填写持照人履历,被认为是一件未指定持有人的通行执照。




据永乐宫壁画保护研究院院长席九龙介绍,此次发现,对研究蒙元时期全真教发展和永乐宫重建历史具有重要资料价值。




席九龙说,南京博物院是中国最好的纸质文物修复单位之一,希望在专业人士的修复下,这些文物可以得到最好的保护。据悉,这批文物年内将完成修复。




Being of great significance to the temple and the study of the development of the Quanzhen School of Taoism, the papers were accessed by experts as the temple's first grade cultural relics, and have been sent for restoration.




They were found in the Yongle Palace among other nearly 100 ancient books and documents in June 2019 when the temple rearranged the books.




The Yongle Palace is one of the three most important temples of the Quanzhen School of Taoism. It has the largest mural of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) in China.




延伸阅读








永乐宫,因故址在永乐镇而得名,又名大纯阳万寿宫,是一座元代道观,供奉着道教主流全真派祖师——吕洞宾。




永乐宫由南向北依次排列着宫门、无极门、三清殿、纯阳殿和重阳殿。其中,重阳殿是供奉道教全真派首领王重阳及其弟子“七真人”的殿宇。




永乐宫因完整保留着1000多平方米的精美壁画而举世闻名。其中最有名的是《朝元图》,它描述了诸神朝拜元始天尊的故事,是元代壁画艺术的最高典范。




值得一提的是,1959年至1964年,修建三门峡水库时,永乐宫恰好位于库区淹没区。因此,永乐宫曾经整体移动了20多公里,从“老家”芮城县永乐镇搬到了“新家”芮城县城北3公里处的龙泉村东。





(未标注图片均来自山西省永乐宫壁画保护研究院官网)


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